Protect and Retain Executives with Addiction Problems 

A Guide to Understanding Addiction in C-Level Executives

Struggling with alcoholism, drug addiction, or other addictive behaviors can interfere with employees’ lives to the point where they cannot do their jobs. When the addicted employee is a top executive, losing them to addiction can cost the company thousands of dollars in time and money. This article will discuss addiction issues with executives and how to help those executives retain their top career positions.

Protect and Retain Executives with Addiction Problems
Protect and Retain Executives with Addiction Problems

Protect and Retain Executives with Addiction Problems

A Guide to Understanding Addiction in C-Level Executives

Struggling with alcoholism, drug addiction, or other addictive behaviors can interfere with employees’ lives to the point where they cannot do their jobs. When the addicted employee is a top executive, losing them to addiction can cost the company thousands of dollars in time and money. This article will discuss addiction issues with executives and how to help those executives retain their top career positions.

The information presented on this page is a general overview and is offered here as a comprehensive resource. At Ampelis Recovery, our programs are customized and tailored to the individual’s needs. Specific details below that cover treatment protocols may not reflect the protocols used for our clients.

If you would like to learn more about Ampelis Recovery and our customized programs for professional men, please do not hesitate to reach out.

WE WELCOME ANY QUESTIONS YOU HAVE: (801) 477-7493

Addiction Problems in Corporate America 

According to the National Safety Council, about 11% of employees who work in executive, administrative, managerial, or financial occupations have substance use disorders.​​​1 The nature of these occupations makes them more prone to situations that contribute to substance abuse.

Top executives are responsible for their department’s or company’s success, placing them under more stress than others. Executives work irregular hours and are often required to work evenings and weekends, during business lunches or dinners, at trade shows, and in other places where alcohol or drugs are readily available. They also travel frequently, removing them from family or friends’ support, which can further drive substance abuse.​​​2

Personality traits also make top executives more prone to substance abuse. People who reach the “top of the corporate ladder” are often risk-takers who seek new opportunities and strive for success to the point of obsession. These traits fit a top executive position and make a person more prone to addiction because both behavior patterns follow the same pathways in the brain.​​​3

Public Examples of Executive Addiction 

  • A recent example of the danger of executive addiction is the 2013 death of Google executive Forrest Timothy Hayes, who passed away from a heroin overdose. Hayes’s relationship with drugs came as a total surprise to his family and friends.4
  • Henry T. Nicholas III, a co-founder of Broadcom, is another example of how addiction can erode the life of an executive. Nicholas, who retired from Broadcom in 2003, was brought up on drug charges in 2008 when he was accused of providing methamphetamine and ecstasy to business executives. Later in 2019, he was found to have large quantities of narcotics.​​​5
  • Other top executives who have openly discussed their struggles with addiction include Audrey Gelman, CEO of The Wing; Steve Madden, founder of the Steve Madden shoe company; and Justin Kan, CEO of Atrium and founder of Twitch.​​​6

Learn More About Healing the Brain


  • Holistic Approach
  • Brain Chemistry
  • Positive Psychology

Executive Retention is the #1 Concern of CEOs

CEOs and top executives are responsible for filling positions at their companies with top talent. Attracting that talent is one thing, but keeping it is another. In 2020, The Conference Board surveyed 740 CEOs and 748 C-Suite executives worldwide about their top internal issues. Attraction and retention of top talent ranked number one for the majority surveyed.​​​7 Companies that struggle with employee retention aim to fix the problem by improving work hours, work conditions, job flexibility, and workload requirements. Even after these changes, however, retention of top talent continues to be a concern.

Brain Drain

Companies’ continued difficulties in retaining their top employees result in a “brain drain,” which costs significant time and money. The Centers for American Progress found that replacing top positions can cost up to 213% of an executive’s salary compared to the replacement cost for the average worker, which is about 20% of salary.​​​8 If a top executive makes a salary of $200,000, the cost to replace that executive could be as much as $426,000.

How Addiction Affects Retention

Companies may find it more cost-effective to support and retain an executive battling addiction rather than replacing them. The Americans with Disabilities Act prevents job termination due to addiction alone, but it does not protect an executive from poor job performance or inappropriate job behavior. While an executive may be terminated if his or her addiction tarnishes a company’s reputation, executives are often offered treatment options that allow them to address their addictions while protecting the company’s reputation and investment.

Wellness centers now offer programs targeted at executives, and companies are willing to pay for these programs rather than paying for the costs of replacing the executive. These programs use the same treatment techniques as traditional treatment programs. Still, they are tailored to accommodate executives’ work schedules and public obligations, allowing executives to keep working while receiving treatment.​​​9

How Behavior Affects Addiction

Another factor that affects addiction among executives is the drive towards success and openness to taking risks. Executives tend to focus on power and influence in their companies, but the quest for power changes how they think and behave.

According to recent neuroscience research, those who strive for power think more abstractly, become self-oriented, and focus on their own goals rather than empathizing with others. This research also found that people with power are less likely to feel limited by social constraints and more prone to risky behavior.​​​10 The decreased inhibition puts executives at a higher risk of drug addiction. Combined with the high-stress levels and the ease of incorporating addictive behavior into this lifestyle, this places executives at higher risk of developing and maintaining addictions over long periods.

Doug Tieman was one such executive. Tieman’s drinking escalated during the 2000s and came to a head in 2010 when he was arrested for drunk driving. His board of directors, as well as his wife, were shocked to hear this news. No one suspected his addiction because his position of power allowed him to hide it.

THE INFLUENCE OF WORK/LIFE BALANCE

Some executives may focus less on power and seek to hone their management skills and train to become well-rounded executives. These executives may also seek more work/life balance.​​​11 Workplace flexibility and wellness programs are critical components to this balance. When executives are offered opportunities to take care of themselves and their families through these programs, their risk of developing addictions decreases.

The Covid-19 pandemic has upset this work/life balance for some executives, making addiction recovery difficult. One example is Shannan Urban, an associate dean for the University of Pennsylvania and a recovering alcoholic. Urban must retain her executive position from home while also homeschooling her 9-year-old daughter. The stress of trying to “do it all” has made staying sober that much more difficult for Urban, who must focus on healthier ways to combat the anxiety and feelings of inadequacy that drove her to drink in the past.​​​12

Transcript

What I thought I would do
00:17
is I would start with a simple request.
00:20
I’d like all of you
00:22
to pause for a moment,
00:24
you wretched weaklings,
00:26
and take stock of your miserable existence.
00:29
(Laughter)
00:33
Now that was the advice
00:35
that St. Benedict gave his rather startled followers
00:37
in the fifth century.
00:39
It was the advice that I decided to follow myself
00:41
when I turned 40.
00:44
Up until that moment, I had been that classic corporate warrior —
00:47
I was eating too much, I was drinking too much,
00:49
I was working too hard
00:51
and I was neglecting the family.
00:53
And I decided that I would try
00:55
and turn my life around.
00:57
In particular, I decided
00:59
I would try to address the thorny issue
01:01
of work-life balance.
01:04
So I stepped back from the workforce,
01:07
and I spent a year at home
01:10
with my wife and four young children.
01:13
But all I learned about work-life balance
01:15
from that year
01:17
was that I found it quite easy
01:19
to balance work and life
01:21
when I didn’t have any work.
01:23
(Laughter)
01:27
Not a very useful skill,
01:29
especially when the money runs out.
01:32
So I went back to work,
01:34
and I’ve spent these seven years since
01:37
struggling with, studying
01:40
and writing about work-life balance.
01:43
And I have four observations
01:45
I’d like to share with you today.
01:47
The first is:
01:49
if society’s to make any progress on this issue,
01:52
we need an honest debate.
01:55
But the trouble is
01:57
so many people talk so much rubbish
01:59
about work-life balance.
02:02
All the discussions about flexi-time
02:04
or dress-down Fridays
02:07
or paternity leave
02:09
only serve to mask the core issue,
02:12
which is
02:14
that certain job and career choices
02:17
are fundamentally incompatible
02:20
with being meaningfully engaged
02:22
on a day-to-day basis
02:24
with a young family.
02:28
Now the first step in solving any problem
02:30
is acknowledging the reality of the situation you’re in.
02:33
And the reality of the society that we’re in
02:37
is there are thousands and thousands
02:39
of people out there
02:41
leading lives of quiet, screaming desperation,
02:45
where they work long, hard hours
02:47
at jobs they hate
02:49
to enable them to buy things they don’t need
02:51
to impress people they don’t like.
02:53
(Laughter)
02:55
(Applause)
02:58
It’s my contention that going to work on Friday in jeans and [a] T-shirt
03:02
isn’t really getting to the nub of the issue.
03:04
(Laughter)
03:08
The second observation I’d like to make
03:10
is we need to face the truth
03:12
that governments and corporations
03:14
aren’t going to solve this issue for us.
03:17
We should stop looking outside.
03:19
It’s up to us as individuals
03:21
to take control and responsibility
03:24
for the type of lives that we want to lead.
03:27
If you don’t design your life,
03:29
someone else will design it for you,
03:32
and you may just not like
03:34
their idea of balance.
03:36
It’s particularly important —
03:39
this isn’t on the World Wide Web, is it? I’m about to get fired —
03:41
it’s particularly important
03:43
that you never put the quality of your life
03:46
in the hands of a commercial corporation.
03:50
Now I’m not talking here just about the bad companies —
03:53
the “abattoirs of the human soul,” as I call them.
03:56
(Laughter)
03:58
I’m talking about all companies.
04:01
Because commercial companies
04:03
are inherently designed
04:05
to get as much out of you [as]
04:07
they can get away with.
04:09
It’s in their nature; it’s in their DNA;
04:11
it’s what they do —
04:13
even the good, well-intentioned companies.
04:16
On the one hand,
04:18
putting childcare facilities in the workplace
04:20
is wonderful and enlightened.
04:22
On the other hand, it’s a nightmare —
04:24
it just means you spend more time at the bloody office.
04:29
We have to be responsible
04:31
for setting and enforcing
04:33
the boundaries that we want in our life.
04:37
The third observation is
04:39
we have to be careful
04:41
with the time frame that we choose
04:44
upon which to judge our balance.
04:48
Before I went back to work
04:50
after my year at home,
04:52
I sat down
04:54
and I wrote out
04:56
a detailed, step-by-step description
04:59
of the ideal balanced day
05:02
that I aspired to.
05:04
And it went like this:
05:07
wake up well rested
05:09
after a good night’s sleep.
05:11
Have sex.
05:14
Walk the dog.
05:16
Have breakfast with my wife and children.
05:19
Have sex again.
05:21
(Laughter)
05:24
Drive the kids to school on the way to the office.
05:27
Do three hours’ work.
05:29
Play a sport with a friend at lunchtime.
05:32
Do another three hours’ work.
05:34
Meet some mates in the pub for an early evening drink.
05:38
Drive home for dinner
05:40
with my wife and kids.
05:43
Meditate for half an hour.
05:46
Have sex.
05:48
Walk the dog. Have sex again.
05:51
Go to bed.
05:54
(Applause)
05:59
How often do you think I have that day?
06:01
(Laughter)
06:04
We need to be realistic.
06:06
You can’t do it all in one day.
06:08
We need to elongate the time frame
06:11
upon which we judge the balance in our life,
06:13
but we need to elongate it
06:15
without falling into the trap
06:17
of the “I’ll have a life when I retire,
06:20
when my kids have left home,
06:22
when my wife has divorced me, my health is failing,
06:25
I’ve got no mates or interests left.”
06:27
(Laughter)
06:29
A day is too short; “after I retire” is too long.
06:32
There’s got to be a middle way.
06:36
A fourth observation:
06:38
We need to approach balance
06:40
in a balanced way.
06:43
A friend came to see me last year —
06:45
and she doesn’t mind me telling this story — a friend came to see me last year
06:48
and said, “Nigel, I’ve read your book.
06:50
And I realize that my life is completely out of balance.
06:53
It’s totally dominated by work.
06:56
I work 10 hours a day; I commute two hours a day.
06:59
All of my relationships have failed.
07:01
There’s nothing in my life
07:03
apart from my work.
07:05
So I’ve decided to get a grip and sort it out.
07:08
So I joined a gym.”
07:10
(Laughter)
07:13
Now I don’t mean to mock,
07:16
but being a fit 10-hour-a-day office rat
07:20
isn’t more balanced; it’s more fit.
07:23
(Laughter)
07:25
Lovely though physical exercise may be,
07:28
there are other parts to life —
07:30
there’s the intellectual side; there’s the emotional side;
07:32
there’s the spiritual side.
07:34
And to be balanced,
07:36
I believe we have to attend
07:38
to all of those areas —
07:40
not just do 50 stomach crunches.
07:43
Now that can be daunting.
07:45
Because people say, “Bloody hell mate, I haven’t got time to get fit.
07:48
You want me to go to church and call my mother.”
07:50
And I understand.
07:52
I truly understand how that can be daunting.
07:55
But an incident that happened a couple of years ago
07:58
gave me a new perspective.
08:00
My wife, who is somewhere in the audience today,
08:03
called me up at the office
08:06
and said, “Nigel, you need to pick our youngest son” —
08:09
Harry — “up from school.”
08:11
Because she had to be somewhere else with the other three children for that evening.
08:14
So I left work an hour early that afternoon
08:17
and picked Harry up at the school gates.
08:21
We walked down to the local park,
08:23
messed around on the swings, played some silly games.
08:26
I then walked him up the hill to the local cafe,
08:29
and we shared a pizza for two,
08:32
then walked down the hill to our home,
08:34
and I gave him his bath
08:36
and put him in his Batman pajamas.
08:39
I then read him a chapter
08:41
of Roald Dahl’s “James and the Giant Peach.”
08:44
I then put him to bed, tucked him in,
08:46
gave him a kiss on his forehead and said, “Goodnight, mate,”
08:48
and walked out of his bedroom.
08:50
As I was walking out of his bedroom,
08:52
he said, “Dad?” I went, “Yes, mate?”
08:55
He went, “Dad, this has been the best day
08:57
of my life, ever.”
09:02
I hadn’t done anything,
09:05
hadn’t taken him to Disney World or bought him a Playstation.
09:08
Now my point is
09:10
the small things matter.
09:13
Being more balanced
09:15
doesn’t mean dramatic upheaval in your life.
09:18
With the smallest investment
09:20
in the right places,
09:22
you can radically transform the quality of your relationships
09:25
and the quality of your life.
09:27
Moreover, I think,
09:29
it can transform society.
09:32
Because if enough people do it,
09:34
we can change society’s definition of success
09:37
away from the moronically simplistic notion
09:40
that the person with the most money when he dies wins,
09:44
to a more thoughtful and balanced definition
09:47
of what a life well lived looks like.
09:51
And that, I think,
09:53
is an idea worth spreading.
09:55
(Applause)

 

 

 

Work-Life Balance Protects Against Addictions

Work-life balance can help protect all employees from addiction. Flexible work schedules, generous time-off plans, and wellness programs all contribute to this work-life balance. While these are nice perks, CEOs can do more to promote work-life balance by listening to their employees.

CEOs can promote the well-being of their employees by prioritizing employees’ agendas and listening to employee needs. Encouraging employees to speak up when they have problems also helps to promote employee well-being. Executives should be transparent about their challenges and stress to their employees that communication is a two-way street.​​​13 Creating work-life balance leads to more job satisfaction, higher employee retention, and fewer addiction problems.

Engaging and Meaningful Work

Another key to retaining top executives is providing them with engaging and meaningful work. Executives want assurance that their work will be challenging and will lead to advancement within the company. Research finds that less than 40% of executives are satisfied with the potential for growth in their positions. To improve growth potential, companies are now beginning to implement a Total Talent Mobility strategy. This strategy periodically moves top employees around within the company to keep them growing by giving them new skills and new opportunities.

Serving the Community

Top executives, especially younger executives, also care about opportunities to serve their communities. A recent survey of millennials’ work habits found that 86% consider their companies’ corporate responsibility programs to be of high value, to the point that they would quit their jobs if these programs were ended. Community involvement helps businesses bring their employees together in a different environment, allowing them to create stronger bonds with each other. This makes collaboration in the workplace easier and leads to higher employee morale. Overall, community involvement builds tighter teams, improves employee retention, and makes the company more attractive to new talent.​​​14

How Engagement and Meaning Protect Against Addiction

A culture of engagement and meaning can help ward off addiction in all employees, including executives. The service attitude helps employees stop thinking so much about their problems and focus more on the company and community. This includes managers and executives who practice servant leadership, which involves putting the needs of employees first and leading community involvement by example.

A 2014 study of hospital executives found that those organizations that practice servant leadership had higher employee satisfaction and higher consumer ratings.​​​15 This mutual support and team approach to solving problems helps reduce stress and anxiety in the workplace that might otherwise lead to addiction.

The Stigma of Addiction in Corporate Culture

Engagement, meaning, team building, and cohesiveness all help turn a corporate culture from a “me” attitude to a “we” attitude. Open communication maintains this positive attitude and aids executives who struggle with addiction. Executives and their employees need support from the company when dealing with addiction. Through this support, executives can remain open and honest about addiction without fear of being fired.

Executives who fear being fired for addiction may enlist those under them to cover up the problem. A recent survey found that 75% of executives in recovery programs had their secretaries or assistants cover their addiction problems. In comparison, 90% reported having peers work extra hours to compensate for their addictions.​​​16

How to Remove This Stigma

Companies can remove this fear by offering employee assistance programs that promise high confidentiality. One such program is ComPsych. Based in Chicago, this company provides employee assistance programs that include a substance abuse counseling program entirely over the phone to maintain employee confidentiality.

ComPsych provides such programs to large companies, including General Electric, American Express, and Sprint.​​​17 Peer support programs can also remove the fear of utilizing employee assistance programs. A peer support member acts as a support person for those seeking information about the employee assistance program. This person can help maintain confidentiality and guide the executive seeking help with the specific programs.

Drug-Free Workplaces vs. The Americans with Disabilities Act

Employers are not legally required to provide employee assistance programs, but this voluntary benefit goes a long way toward maintaining a workforce’s mental health. Large companies also have a moral obligation to support their employees in this manner. When an executive reveals an addiction, the company should strongly encourage using the employee assistance program.

Transcript
00:19
– Dustin Paschal here with Simon Paschal Says,
00:22
today we’re gonna talk about
00:23
basically the Americans with Disabilities Act
00:26
with respect to both alcoholism
00:28
and drug addiction or drug use.
00:30
Now both drug addiction,
00:32
drug use and alcoholism
00:35
are protected disabilities
00:38
under the Americans with Disabilities Act,
00:39
they are considered disabilities,
00:41
but there are some nuances
00:42
and some differences with both of those.
00:44
So we wanted to go over those just kind of briefly
00:47
so that employers have an understanding of how that works.
00:50
So let’s start with the alcoholism piece.
00:52
So alcoholism, like I said,
00:55
is considered a disability
00:58
under the Americans with Disabilities Act.
01:00
The main thing to think about there
01:02
is that that’s gonna arise most times
01:04
in the realm of a reasonable accommodation.
01:08
For instance, a current alcoholic may need a
01:11
reasonable accommodation to visit rehab
01:15
or to meet with an addiction counselor once a week
01:20
or something along those lines.
01:21
So it’s going to arise most often
01:23
in the realm of an accommodation, but it is a disability
01:27
under the Americans with Disabilities Act.
01:29
The question we get from employers is, “Can I discipline
01:33
someone who I know is an alcoholic,
01:34
who fails to show up for work
01:36
or engages in unsafe actions in the workplace?”
01:41
and the answer is yes, because the law says that
01:45
if you have policies in place that you apply equally
01:48
to all employees, those policies
01:50
can be applied to people who are alcoholic.
01:55
The prime example is
01:56
if you have a policy regarding attendance
01:59
and a kind of no call, no show,
02:02
or if you don’t show up for work
02:03
three days in a row, you’re terminated,
02:06
you can apply that policy equally to an alcoholic.
02:09
So if that alcoholic fails to show for three days in a row
02:13
because he or she was drinking
02:17
and unable to come to work
02:21
even though they are an alcoholic, and that is a disability,
02:23
you have a policy that you apply
02:25
across the board evenly to all employees.
02:28
So you can apply it in that instance
02:30
and you can take disciplinary action
02:32
including termination for that employee.
02:35
Like I said, alcoholism will most often arise
02:37
in the realm of reasonable accommodation.
02:40
Now, the difference between alcoholism
02:43
and drug addiction or drug use is that
02:46
current drug use, drug addiction is not
02:49
considered something that’s protected
02:51
by the Americans with Disabilities Act.
02:52
Past drug use is, so you cannot discriminate against
02:57
an individual who is a former drug user.
03:01
Same goes, you can’t discriminate against someone
03:03
who is a current or former alcoholic, but that’s the nuance
03:07
and the difference there between alcoholism
03:09
and drug use is that current drug use
03:11
is not protected under the law
03:13
and you can take whatever action is necessary
03:16
against an employee who is currently using
03:19
illegal drugs in your workplace.
03:22
So there’s just a few little pieces on both
03:25
alcoholism and drug use with respect to the
03:28
Americans with Disabilities Act,
03:30
if you have further questions, both the TWC
03:33
and the department of labor have good materials on this
03:36
or you can contact your friendly employment lawyer.
03:39
Thank you for listening to us,
03:41
this was Simon Paschal Says,
03:42
we’ll see you next time.

A Company’s Legal and Moral Obligations

There is no law against companies mandating the use of the employee assistance program for substance abuse or other addiction problems, but such mandates should refer only to active addictions. If an executive is mandated to use the employee assistance program because of a past addiction that they have already overcome, the company can be found in violation of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) since addictions may qualify as disabilities. The referral to the employee assistance program must be based on job performance and not on the perception that the executive has a disability.​​​18

Executives with addiction problems should also not feel pressured to work while in an addiction treatment program. Most treatment programs emphasize taking time off from work, but executives may fear losing their status or even their jobs from taking time off.

However, this fear is unwarranted as substance abuse, and many other forms of addiction are considered chronic, severe health problems and are covered under the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA). This law allows an employee to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave to care for a serious health condition that causes the employee to be unable to perform their essential job duties.​​​19

How First-Class Addiction Treatment Stops the Cycles of Relapse

Many wellness centers offer programs specifically tailored to the needs of executives. These programs provide the same elements that other treatment programs do, including medically supervised withdrawal treatment, behavioral treatments, marriage and family counseling, and support groups.

Programs for executives, however, also observe the need for confidentiality and accommodate their busy work schedules. These programs offer executives “perks,” such as luxury settings, gourmet food, massages, and so on. Some programs even provide staff who go with executives to board meetings or press conferences and help them re-enter the corporate world full time.

All of these issues highlight the fact that top executives are valuable assets to their companies. Businesses should structure executives’ work so that it is engaging, meaningful, and productive without the extra stress and anxiety of “climbing the corporate ladder.” By doing so, companies will help to prevent addiction problems in the first place.

Those who do fall into addiction can be retained by taking advantage of employee assistance programs and treatment tailored to the needs of executives. Companies that show concern for their executives and aim to help stop addiction are more likely to keep those executives in the long term.


Resources

  1. “Substance Use Disorders by Occupation.” National Safety Council, 2020
  2. www.bls.gov/ooh/management/top-executives.htm#tab-3
  3. www.forbes.com/sites/alicegwalton/2013/08/06/why-the-brains-of-high-powered-people-may-be-more-prone-to-addiction/?sh=3f5617aa3736
  4. www.usatoday.com/story/tech/2014/07/09/google-exec-hayes-killed-by-call-girl/12422797/
  5. www.latimes.com/socal/daily-pilot/news/story/2019-08-01/broadcom-nicholas-spared-prison-time-in-las-vegas-drug-case
  6. www.businessinsider.com/business-leaders-who-openly-discuss-drug-and-alcohol-addiction#justin-kan-the-ceo-of-atrium-and-founder-of-twitch-decided-to-give-up-alcohol-in-2019-7
  7. Mitchell, Charles, et al. “The CEO View of Risks and Opportunities in 2020.” The Conference Board Inc., 2019
  8. Boushey, Heather, and Sarah Jane Glynn. “There Are Significant Business Costs to Replacing Employees.” Center for American Progress, 16 Nov. 2012
  9. www.cnn.com/2018/10/17/success/addiction-c-suite-executives
  10. www.cnn.com/2018/09/30/success/power-brain-behavior/index.html
  11. www.hiring.monster.com/employer-resources/workforce-management/employee-retention-strategies/retain-senior-employees/
  12. www.cnn.com/2020/07/22/success/executives-working-parents-addiction-pandemic/index.html
  13. www.businessinsider.com/how-to-create-work-life-balance-ceo-advice-2021-2#:~:text=Creating%20work-life%20balance%20means%20modeling%20it%20yourself.%20Having,leaders%20to%20be%20transparent%20about%20their%20own%20challenges
  14. www.forbes.com/sites/forbeshumanresourcescouncil/2017/06/08/how-community-involvement-programs-can-grow-your-business/?sh=5a29b29a421d
  15. www.researchgate.net/publication/287454652_Servant_Leadership_Employee_Satisfaction_and_Organizational_Performance_in_Rural_Community_Hospitals
  16. www.nytimes.com/2003/07/20/business/personal-business-dealing-with-addiction-and-what-comes-after.html?auth=login-google
  17. www.blog.capterra.com/employee-assistance-programs/
  18. www.dol.gov/agencies/whd/fmla
  19. www.pharmacytimes.com/view/millennials-value-health-insurance-benefits-over-pay-raises